Knowledge

Sunday, October 31, 2010

Parts of system unit

Motherboard - The motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. It is also known as the mainboard or system board.
CPU - The CPU is the central electronic chip that determines the processing power of the computer.
Memory - Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores applications, documents, and stem operating information.
Bus - A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place to another.
Expansion Slots - Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. They are sockets into which adapters are connected.
Ports and Connectors - A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter.
Bays - A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive, floppy drive or CD-ROM drive sits
Power Supply - A power supply changes normal household electricity into electricity that a computer can use.
Sound Components - A sound card lets a computer play and record high quality sound.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)


  1. Does all of the mathematics, mainly addition
  2. Does all the logical comparisons of values
  3. Directs the flow of data in a computer
  4. Controls the operation of the parts of the computer


Today, all CPUs are microprocessors


  1. A microprocessor is a complete computer on a silicon chip
    • stores data and instructions waiting to be used
    • follows changeable instructions
    • does input, processing, and output

  2. A microprocessor does all of the functions of a computer

CPUs have three basic parts


  1. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  2. #* does all of the mathematics in a computer
    • does all of the logic comparisons of values
    • some common logic comparison symbols
    • #** = equal to
      • < less than
      • > greater than
      • <= less than or equal to
      • >= greater than or equal to
      • <> not equal

    • directs the flow of information into the CPU and/or memory or storage
    • controls which instructions the CPU will do next

  3. The Control Unit
    • Used to store data and instructions inside the processor
    • Size of the registers can affect the speed and performance of the processor

  4. Registers

Speed of CPUs


  1. The speed of CPUs is measured in hertzs.
  2. #* A hertz is on cycle per second.
    • Need to measure time to determine cycles per second
    • #** All computers have a clock built into them for timing the cycles
      • The clock is usually located in a small metal box on the motherboard.
    • Today, many CPUs can complete over six (6) instructions per second.

    • Most computers have a CPU that can do more than 400 MHz.
    • #** MHz stands for megahertzs
      • A MHz is 1,000,000 cycles per second.
    • Computers will soon be at speeds of over a gigahertz, 1,000,000,000 Hertzs.
  3. Speeds of modern CPUs
Memory

Primary memory can be used directly by the CPU

  1. Consists of silicon chips, usually either VLS or VLSI technology is used to create the chips
    • Read Only Memory (ROM)
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
  2. Two forms of Primary Memory
  3. Primary memory is also called primary storage

Read Only Memory (ROM)


  1. Stores instructions that are used by the CPU
  2. #* Tells the CPU how to be the kind of computer it is, for example a Windows, Macintosh, or Play Station computers.
    • Tells the CPU how to work with the different parts of the computer
    • ROM can also hold programs that are directly accessed by the CPU. One such program is the self-test when the computer is first turned on. The self-test tests to seem if all the parts on the main circuit board (mother board) are working correctly.
    • The instructions are built into the electronic circuits of the chips
    • These instructions in ROM are called firmware
    • To change the instructions in ROM you need to usually change the chips or do some other special process that is normally not available to an average user.
  3. The instructions in ROM can not usually be changed
  4. The instructions in ROM are nonvolatile. They stay in ROM even when the computer is turned off.
    • Random access means that any piece of information in ROM can be accessed at any given time without access other information first. It is a lot like the tracks on a music CD. You can access any track at any time and in any order.
    • The other kind of access is sequential access. You must access the information in the order that they are located. This is a lot like a music tape. You must play the songs in order, or you have to fast forward past songs to get to the one you want.
  5. Access to information is random access.

Random Access Memory (RAM)


  1. Store data and instructions that are used by the CPU to perform some task.
  2. #* These instructions are usually loaded into RAM from a secondary storage device.
    • RAM is also used to store instructions that tell the CPU how to work with its parts. These instructions are usually called drivers.
  3. The instructions in RAM are constantly changing, depending on the needs of the CPU.
    • When the computer is turned off the information in RAM disappears.
    • The information in RAM needs to be saved to secondary storage before the computer is turned off.
  4. The instructions in RAM are volatile.
  5. Access to information is random access.

Motherboard - The motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. It is also known as the mainboard or system board.
CPU - The CPU is the central electronic chip that determines the processing power of the computer.
Memory - Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores applications, documents, and stem operating information. 
 Bus - A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place to another. 

                             (WATCH THIS VIDEO..^_^..) 
 http://www.slideshare.net/norzaini/chapter-4-the-components-of-the-system-unit
Figure 2-1. SGI Graphics Cluster Node
SGI Graphics Cluster Node

Figure 2-2 shows the interior of a node.
Figure 2-2. Node Interior

Node Interior

Motherboard (System Board)


The motherboard is mounted directly on the base of the chassis. Figure 2-3 points out motherboard features.
Figure 2-3. Node Motherboard Features
Node Motherboard Features

Table 2-1 summarizes the motherboard components. most of which are shown in Figure 2-3.
Table 2-1. Motherboard Components
ItemDescription
BU1Internal buzzer
BT1Battery
CN1CPU socket 1 thermal sensor connector
CN2Above: PS/2 mouse port
Below: PS/2 keyboard port
CN4Above: Parallel port
Left: Serial port 1 (COM2)
Right: Serial port 2 (COM1)
CN5BMC connector
CN6Multi connector
CN7LAN jack (RJ-45)
CN8BMC connector
CN9Wake on LAN connector
CN11FDD connector
CN12CPU socket 2 thermal sensor connector
CN1312C connector
CN15System fan connector
CN16BP connector
CN17IDE 1 connector
CN18AGP slot
CN19CD in connector
CN20IDE 2 connector
CN21Fax voice connector
CN22SCSI channel B connector (68-pin) (Ultra 160/m)
CN25SCSI channel A connector (68-pin) (Ultra 160/m)
CN26System fan connector
CNX7System fan connector
DIMM1-3DIMM slots
UK1Microphone in
JP1CPU socket 2 fan connector
JP2CPU socket 1 fan connector
JP3SCSI channel A terminator
1-2 On (default)
2-3 Off
JP3XSCSI channel B terminator
1-2 On (default)
2-3 Off
JP4Onboard buzzer external speaker
1-2 Onboard buzzer (default)
2-3 External speaker
PCI1-5PCI slots
PWR1ATX power supply connector
PWR2ATX power supply connector
U3CPU socket 2
U15Apollo Pro 133A chipset
U20CPU socket 1
U30Intel 82559 LAN chipset
U37Apollo Pro 133A chipset
U46Adaptec AIC-7899 chipset
WKUP1Wake on Ring connector
For expandability, the motherboard includes one AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) Pro bus, five PCI bus slots, and three DIMM sockets that allow memory installation to a maximum of 1 GB, using synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) DIMMs.
For connectivity, the motherboard supports a speaker-out/line-out, and microphone-in port. Other standard connectivity features are two NS16C550 UART serial ports, one enhanced parallel port with Enhanced Parallel Port/Extended Capabilities Port (EPP/ECP) support, a diskette drive interface, and two embedded hard disk interfaces.
Expansion Slots - Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. They are sockets into which adapters are connected.                                  
Ports and Connectors - A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter. 
  
Ports and Connectors - A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter. 

Bays - A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive, floppy drive or CD-ROM drive sits 
Power Supply - A power supply changes normal household electricity into electricity that a computer can use.

No comments:

Post a Comment